The liver is primarily essential for digesting food and ridding your body of toxic substances. Being the largest internal organ of the body, the main functions of the liver are to :

  • metabolize nutrients for intestinal absorption
  • store nutrients
  • produce proteins
  • Detoxify  blood by discarding medications, alcohol, and toxic chemicals from the bloodstream and treating them chemically so they can be excreted by digestive or urinary systems

Types of Liver Diseases:

The various types of liver diseases are largely classified according to the cause of the specific problem. Most of these diseases involve inflammation of the liver, termed clinically as hepatitis –

Viral Hepatitis

This is one of the most commonly occurring liver diseases where the liver becomes inflamed due to a viral infection. These viruses are of different strains and referred to as A, B, C, D and E. For instance, hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus which is often contracted from contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B virus is transmitted through sexual contact and blood products.

Parasitic Infection

Parasites can infest in the liver and damage it over time. This is generally caused by flatworms, for e.g. blood flukes or liver flukes. Such worms are often acquired from sheep or cattle and sometimes from other organisms like snails. The parasite enters the human body by consuming water or food that is contaminated with the immature worm or its eggs.

Alcoholic and Toxic Hepatitis

In the case of alcoholic hepatitis, the liver becomes inflamed and damaged due to excessive alcohol consumption usually over a long period of time. Whereas, in toxic hepatitis, the liver becomes inflamed and damaged from exposure to a number of different chemicals, and not only alcohol. These can include prescription and over-the-counter drugs, health supplements and industrial chemicals such as cleaning solvents etc.

Fatty Liver Disease

Fatty liver disease happens when globules of fat accumulate in the liver. Some fat in the liver is normal but in fatty liver disease, there is an excess. There are two categories of fatty liver disease – alcoholic and non-alcoholic. Alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with overuse of alcohol Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to carrying excess weight and obesity.

Autoimmune Liver Disease

Autoimmune hepatitis is where the liver is inflamed as a result of the immune system attacking it. It may be associated with a certain genetic mutation. Eventually, the liver is damaged by this abnormal immune activity.

Genetic Liver Problems

Certain liver diseases may occur due to genetic factors and previous family history. These include conditions such as hemochromatosis, hyperoxaluria and Wilson’s disease.  These type of liver diseases mainly cause a buildup of toxic substances within the liver.

Liver Cancer

A number of different abnormal growths can affect the liver. Some of these growths may be cancerous while others are benign. Hepatocellular carcinoma is also known as liver cancer and arises from the cells. Bile duct cancer can also spread to the liver tissue or affect the liver from functioning normally.

Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis refers to an end-stage of liver disease where there is a significant destruction of liver tissue and scarring within the liver. It can occur for a number of different reasons, such as with alcoholic hepatitis or other forms of severe or prolonged liver disease. Cirrhosis is irreversible and will eventually lead to death.

Signs of a Liver Problem:

Signs and symptoms of liver disease include:

  • Skin and eyes appear yellowish (jaundice)
  • Itchy skin
  • Dark urine colour
  • Pale stool colour, or bloody or tar-coloured stool
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • A tendency to bruise easily
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Swelling and fluid accumulation in the abdomen

Prevention:

In order to prevent liver disease, the following steps are advised:

  • Drink alcohol in moderation.
  • Use a condom during sex.
  • Get vaccinated against Hepatitis.
  • Use medications wisely. Take prescription and nonprescription drugs only when needed and only in recommended doses
  • Avoid contact with other people’s blood and body fluids. Hepatitis viruses can be spread by accidental needle sticks or improper cleanup of blood or body fluids.
  • Take care with aerosol sprays. Make sure the room is ventilated, and wear a mask when spraying insecticides, fungicides, paint and other toxic chemicals.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity can cause nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
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CategoryGastroenterology
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